The Federal Republic of Central America, known as the United Provinces of Central America for the first year of its creation, was created from the territories of the Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain in September 1821. It successfully resisted Mexican annexation in its early years, even seizing territory from the first Mexican Empire. It received Panama from Bolivar's Gran Colombia in gratitude for its assistance in removing the Spanish from the Caribbean.
It was the target of extensive immigration from Europe, resulting in a large and diverse workforce that allowed it to rapidly develop within its borders and establish rich trade routes with Europe and the fledgling states of South America. It is estimated that one-third of the population is descended from Polish, Irish, and Italian immigrants that arrived during this period. A series of successful orientation programmes allowed useful integration into society and the FRCA rapidly developed as one of the primary powers of the New World.
The Federal Republic of Central America is a constitutional republic with a president who is both head of state and head of government. There are multiple parties. Executive power is in the hands of the government, and legislative power is under the control of the government and Congress of the Republic. The judiciary is independent.
Divided into seven departments, the FRCA consists of:
- Costa Rica
- El Salvador
- Los Altos
|This text is based on Central America from Wikipedia, licensed under CC-BY-SA.|
Physiographically, Central America is the tapering isthmus of southern North America, with unique and varied features extending from the north-western borders of Chiapas and Guatemala southeastward to the Isthmus of Panama where it connects to the Colombian Pacific Lowlands in northwestern South America.
Central America is a country of some 550,000 square kilometres. The Pacific Ocean lies to the southwest, the Caribbean Sea lies to the northeast, and the Gulf of Mexico lies to the north. Most of Central America rests atop the Caribbean Plate.
The region is geologically active, with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occurring frequently.
Volcanic eruptions are common in the region. Fertile soils from weathered volcanic lavas have made it possible to sustain dense populations in the agriculturally productive highland areas.
Central America has many mountain ranges; the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, the Cordillera Isabelia and the Cordillera de Talamanca. Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are suitable for the people; in fact most of the population of Honduras, Costa Rica and Guatemala live in valleys. Valleys are also suitable for the production of coffee, beans and other crops.
Central America is part of the Mesoamerican Biodiversity hotspot, boasting 7% of the world's biodiversity. As a bridge between North and South America, Central America has many species from the Nearctic and the Neotropic ecozones. However the southern departments (Costa Rica and Panama) of the region have more biodiversity than the northern departments (Guatemala), meanwhile the central departments (Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador) have least biodiversity.
The economy of Central America is developed and growing. Its unemployment rate is 1.9% and it has a registered food surplus, with the 8th highest HDI in the world. Contrast between the rich and poor is comparatively little for a New World country.
It combines a production and service economy. Crops such as coffee, bananas, pineapples, tobacco, and sugar cane are produced along with clothing, cars, machinery, pharmaceuticals and arms. Banking, commerce, tourism and trading are major sources of income. Central America is a minor exporter of oil.
Central America owns the two Panama Canals, through which almost all shipping travelling between the pacific coast of the Americas, the Atlantic Cost, and Europe must travel. This provides substantial income.
Spanish settlers in Central America brought European customs and traditions to this region, which subsequently mixed with native cultures as well as those of further immigrants arriving in the country. Festivals and dances are a large part of local tradition and are a major tourist attraction; many kinds of music are produced and Central American musicians experiment with new styles and instruments.
Religious statistics are not collected by the Central American government, but private surveys indicate that the population is approximately 70% Roman Catholic, with minorities of protestant and orthodox christians.
Central America is one of the dominant New World powers and works to try and prevent wars on both continents. It has, however, been involved in several wars, including the First and Second World Wars.